1992: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development is held in Rio de Janeiro. It is the result of, among other things, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and the presence of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. The key principle of the Kyoto Protocol was that industrialized countries had to reduce the volume of their CO2 emissions. The Kyoto Protocol provided that 37 industrialized countries and the EU would reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Developing countries were invited to voluntarily commit and more than 100 developing countries, including China and India, were totally excluded from the Kyoto agreement. The Berlin mandate was recognized in the Kyoto Protocol, as developing countries were not subject to emission reduction commitments during the first Kyoto commitment period.  However, the great potential for emissions growth in developing countries has strained negotiations on this issue.  In the final agreement, the Clean Development Mechanism was developed to limit emissions in developing countries, but so that developing countries do not bear the costs of reducing emissions.  The general assumption was that developing countries would be subject to quantitative obligations in subsequent commitment periods and that, at the same time, developed countries would meet their first-round obligations.  In 2001, the last meeting (COP6 bis) was held in Bonn at which the necessary decisions were taken. After some concessions, proponents of the protocol (under the leadership of the European Union) managed to secure the agreement of Japan and Russia by allowing for increased use of carbon sinks. The protocol left unresolved several issues that could be resolved later by the sixth UNFCCC Cop6 conference, which attempted to resolve these issues at its meeting in The Hague at the end of 2000, but it was unable to reach an agreement, given that the European Union (which advocates stricter implementation) and the United States , Canada, Japan and Australia (who wanted the agreement to be less demanding and more flexible) was unable to reach an agreement.